Saving Watts & Drops

Distributing Energy Saving Products

Saving Big Together

 

Saving Watts and Drops from CERTs helps utilities and communities distribute easy-to-install, energy and water saving products, such as sprayers, faucet aerators, showerheads, LED bulbs, and advanced power strips.

The effort is rooted in the idea that lots of smaller energy savings happening throughout Minnesota can result in big energy savings together.

 

You Host, CERTs Supports

 

How does it work?

  1. Utilities, cities, and other community-level organizations host a distribution of products with CERTs assistance.
  2. CERTs will invite the electric or natural gas utility to be involved with city and community led efforts.
  3. CERTs will help the host decide how to distribute the items.

See examples of past efforts below.

 

Frequently Asked Questions for Utilities

CERTs conducted a pilot of this program in the Spring of 2016. The utility partner was Agralite Electric Cooperative and point person was Yusef Orest (now at Arrowhead Electric Cooperative). The product was a 9W Soft White LED bulb, ENERGY STAR certified. The fundraising teams included YES! ACGC, YES! Discovery, and Big Stone County 4-H. All teams took the Selling at Events approach. See an overview of the three approaches on the Steps to a Successful Fundraiser page.

If utilities are open to it, CERTs will post utilities that are considering or participating in this full launch of the program.

The utility may adjust their support to a fundraising group based on its capacity. At a minimum, it is expected that the utility will be involved in determining which item to include in a fundraiser (FAQ # 4), place the order for the quantity of items the team needs (FAQ # 7 and FAQ # 8), and provide utility logo and product technical information (FAQ # 9).

Utilities can choose to support teams more, if time and capacity allows. Ideas for how utilities can support beyond the minimum include: provide any readily-available educational materials or other freebies to complement the fundraiser, advertise the fundraiser through utility communications and connections the utility has in the community, meet with the team to help with fundraiser planning or generally speak about energy, and explain the energy savings associated with their fundraiser.

Under the Pre-Order and Selling Direct approaches, a fundraiser may last 3-6 weeks, depending on how long the team wants to collect orders or carry out sales. The overall duration of a fundraiser using the Selling at Events approach will vary depending on the number of events and how far apart they are spaced. See an overview of the three approaches on the Getting Started page. The utility will only be intermittently involved during the overall duration of the fundraisers.

It is entirely up to each utility. CERTs recommends trying out only one product for this new program. CERTs is hosting this program in part to support utilities meeting their Conservation Improvement Program (CIP) goals. So, select a product that you will be able to document & report savings in a straight-forward manner. CERTs has educational and outreach materials compiled and shared under Step 2: Learn and prepare educational materials for the following products: LED light bulbs, advanced power strips, low-flow showerheads, low-flow faucet aerators, and efficient pre-rinse spray valves. Please notify CERTs at fundraisers@cleanenergyresourceteams.org if there are additional products for which we should compile educational materials.

Any utility partner in this program can create a payment arrangement of their choice with the fundraising group. One big benefit to the fundraising group partnering with the utility is not needing the funds upfront to pay for the product. Utilities can choose to buy products first & allow the fundraising group to pay back all or some of the product cost after selling at the fundraiser price (Selling Direct and Selling at Events approaches). Alternatively, a utility & fundraising group can agree to only do the Pre-Order approach so that the utility also doesn't need upfront funds. See an overview of the three approaches on the Getting Started page.

A utility can also choose to cover none, some, or all of the product cost. When the utility ultimately covers none of the product cost, it is receiving full cost recovery and the product price needs to be set such that the product cost is covered & there is still a reasonable fundraised amount per item. When the utility covers all of the product cost (essentially a generous donation), it creates the potential for either a large fundraised amount and/or low fundraiser prices.

The utility and the fundraising group need to agree on the payment arrangement (both the timing and the proportion of product cost per party) before any items are purchased.

Download this spreadsheet to weigh product price and cost against rebate and fundraised amount per item.

A fundraising group may span multiple utility territories. In other words, they may be selling the energy saving items in more than one utility territory. CERTs suggests fundraising groups try to work with only one utility to start, but in the cases where it is inevitable that boundaries will be crossed, we have a few suggestions:

  1. Have a meeting with representatives from all utilities and from the fundraising group so that there can be clear communication on expectations, products, and process. CERTs can convene this meeting, if it is helpful.
  2. To keep things simple, the multiple utilities may want to agree on one product and a single rebate amount to apply.
  3. To secure an even better bulk price, one utility may want to place the order and the other utilities pay for their proportion of items.
  4. When accounting for the energy savings, each utility can claim the proportion of the total calculation for the fundraiser based on proportion of payment of the items. (In other words, detailed tracking of products sold in each territory is not necessary.)

See the considerations brought up in FAQ # 4.

The fundraiser price will depend on the item's cost, how much of that cost the utility plans to recoup from the community or youth group, and the utility rebate amount that will be applied.

CERTs recommends setting the product price at or below the typical retail price of the product in area stores to show a comparable price and therefore show customers that the fundraiser is a good deal for them. However, the group and utility may decide to set the price at or slightly above retail in order to have a more robust fundraiser. If the fundraiser price is at or above retail, the group will want to be prepared to justify to customers why the cost is higher (for example, maybe there is a specific project cost that the fundraiser aims to cover and the community will want to support that project through the slightly higher cost).

Download this spreadsheet to weigh product price and cost against rebate and fundraised amount per item.

If a team is only doing the Pre-Order approach, then the quantity will be known once order collection ceases. Otherwise, it depends. The Step 4 worksheet walks a team through estimating the amount they would need for the Selling Direct and Selling at Events approaches. While this worksheet may serve as a good basis for an estimate, it can truly depend on a team's leadership and it's individual members' motivation and enthusiasm for the fundraiser. See an overview of the three approaches on the Getting Started page.

If you are open to having leftovers, the utility could use them in the following ways:

  1. Collaborate with another youth or community group to use the product in their fundraiser (CERTs could help with finding another group).
  2. Give items at the utility office as customers come in to pay their bills.
  3. Give away items at the utility's open house or other utility hosted events.

If you prefer not to have leftovers, then the utility could order less than amount the fundraising group estimated and order more if sales are going well and more items are needed. Also, the utility can discuss with the vendor/supplier before purchasing items whether you can return leftover products. Some are open to this!

The utility may use its own existing procurement source for items supported by Saving Watts and Drops (LED bulbs, advanced power strips, low flow showerheads, low flow faucet aerators, and efficient pre-rinse spray valves). Contact Alexis Troschinetz at atroschi@umn.edu or 612-626-0455, if you would like a few recommendations. We generally recommend utilities obtain a few bids or quotes to consider.

There is a 3 inch by 3 inch area available on the order form for product information. The utility should provide the product's image and technical details (information typically provided on a product specification sheet) to the fundraising group for insertion into the order form. For product information on light bulbs, for example, CERTs recommends including the Lighting Facts label for that product (including whether it's ENERGY STAR), and any other useful information such as brand and marketing terms for color (e.g., soft white) and brightness (e.g., 60 W equivalent). For faucet aerators, for example, CERTs recommends including the gallons per minute (GPM), and any other useful information such as finish (chrome) and stream type (needle). Below is an example for a light bulb so that you can see how this information can easily fit into a 3 inch by 3 inch space.

Easy steps to creating an image file without graphics software:

  1. In a Word Document, arrange the content on an empty page that you would like to include on the Order Form, confining it to a 3 inch by 3 inch space. (If the ruler bars are not on, you can find that under the View menu, Show sub-menu, and click the check box for Ruler.)
  2. Open the Snipping Tool (a screenshot utility included in Windows Vista and later) under programs. If you don't use this often, you may need to scroll through a long list of available programs to you or search for it.
  3. In the Snipping Tool, click New and select the 3 inch by 3 inch area (approximately) in the Word Document you were working in. The image will be copied into the Snipping Tool.
  4. In the Snipping Tool, save the copied image as a JPEG to a location you will be able to find it. The utility may choose to add this content to the Order Form and send the Order Form to the fundraising team, or simply send this product image (along with the utility logo) to the fundraising group so that they may insert into the Order Form.

CERTs is happy to prepare the 3x3 image of product information to place into the order form, if the utility doesn't feel like it has capacity to do this.

Through the program, the order form is the only required paperwork. Address & phone are requested from customers on the form for the Pre-Order approach. However, should the utility need this information for Conservation Improvement Program (CIP) filing purposes, feel free to require it for all approaches (Pre-Order, Selling Direct, Selling at Events). See an overview of the three approaches on the Getting Started page. Otherwise, the utility can consider whatever additional documentation may be needed for CIP filings and can impose additional requirements on the team.

The products supported by Saving Watts and Drops (LED light bulbs, advanced power strips, low-flow showerheads, low-flow faucet aerators, and efficient pre-rinse spray valve) have energy savings calculation methods outlined in the Technical Reference Manual (TRM) issued by the Department of Commerce, Division of Energy Resources and intended to support utilities with the Conservation Improvement Program (CIP). Some calculations may require the in service rate level to be defined. Saving Watts and Drops Fundraisers is most similar to the Direct Sales method in the TRM. Therefore, for 2017, utilities can assume an in service rate of 73% for items reaching customers via a Saving Watts and Drops fundraiser. For questions about the manual's direction and how it relates to Saving Watts and Drops, please contact the Department's Project Manager, Mark Garofano, at Mark.Garofano@state.mn.us or 651-539-1864.

If your utility has any questions or concerns about the Conservation Improvement Program (CIP) in general, how this program works with spending/saving requirements, coordination with neighboring utilities (beyond the information shared in FAQ #5 above), or any other CIP concerns, please contact the Department of Commerce, Division of Energy Resources staff. Call 1-800-657-3710 and ask for staff in the Conservation Improvement Program. Email cip.info@state.mn.us.

Select Products

 

CERTs can help the utility, city or other host organization:

  1. Think through which product makes the most sense based on conservation and engagement goals
  2. Obtain bids from vendors
  3. Create customized outreach and educational materials to go with the items

See products below: Utilities could choose any one or more of these items. A typical bulk cost and likely audience is noted with each, followed by further detail.

 

Which items to distribute?

Product Details

What are LED light bulbs? LED stands for light emitting diode. It is the newest way to produce light for common, everyday light bulbs. LED light bulbs are becoming the go-to household bulb because prices have really come down in the last couple of years and performance is top-notch. LEDs are quickly replacing the previous energy-efficient option, CFLs or compact fluorescent light bulbs. CFLs are the bulbs that look like a spiral (either on its own or within a light bulb shaped cover). LEDs look more like a regular light bulb with a base that contains the electronics and the base might be shaped in a way that helps shed excess heat. Sometimes people confuse CFLs and LED, because they are both light bulbs with three-letter acronyms. As you are providing education on LEDs, it can be helpful to have pictures or samples of some generic CFLs and the LEDs your group is providing in the fundraiser so that people can see the difference.

The CERTs Right Light Guide
How to decide how much light you need, what color light you want, and learn about the costs and features of LEDs and CFLs. We highly recommend the CERTs Right Light Guide - the generic one is shared here. However, CERTs can customize the Right Light Guide to the utility's brand.
Click here to go to the Right Light Guide>>

U.S. Department of Energy's Video on Lighting Choices
Shows off different types of bulbs like halogens, CFLs and LEDs and the color options now available.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Department of Energy's Video on Lumens
How to shop for Lumens instead of Watts.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Department of Energy's Infographic on Lumens
A graphic to reinforce the messages delivered in the video on lumens.
Click here to go to resource >>

Educational Powerpoint Presentation
A powerpoint with various educational resources, messages, and key points for energy efficient lighting.
Click here to go to download >>

Comparison of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED Light Bulbs
Descriptions of how each bulb works and how much light versus heat is given off by each bulb. Image courtesy of ENERGY STAR.
Click here to view image >>

Instructions: Build a Lightbox
How to build a display to show different types of light bulbs.
Click here to go to resource >>

Pros and Cons of LEDs and CFLs
Additional details of the advantages and drawbacks of LEDs and CFLs, easily showing the differences between these two efficient lighting options.
Click here to go to resource >>

Frequently Asked Lighting Questions & Answers
Questions CERTs gets asked most about lighting. Printing these out and having them available at an event outreach table would probably be helpful.
Click here to go to resource >>

Recycling Locations for CFLs
Many people may be switching from CFLs to LEDs. It's the state law to recycle CFLs because of the mercury they contain. People can find a recycling location nearest them to properly dispose of CFLs.
Click here to go to resource >>

Top Ten Low Cost/No Cost Tips for Saving Energy and Money
This is a good resource for educating about energy efficiency beyond efficient lighting.
Click here to go to resource >>

Home Remedy: At-Home Guide and Conservation Manual for Energy and Water Savings
Here's another good resource for educating about and beyond energy efficient lighting. A Southwest CERTs Seed Grant recipient created the Conservation Manual which helps you instruct others on energy and water saving activities. The at-home guide can be given to participants.
Click here to go to manual >>
Click here to go to at-home guide >>

What are Advanced Power Strips? Advanced Power Strips (APS) are power strips that contain numerous controlled sockets. Utilities can claim energy savings toward the state energy saving goal of 1.5% each year with Tier 2 Advanced Power Strips only. Tier 2 power strips use infrared (IR) sensing and Root Mean Squared (RMS) power sensing to detect energy consumption from connected devices in all sockets. Using Tier 2 power strips with personal computers (desktop or laptop) involves installing software on the computer that works in conjunction with the APS. The APS monitors multiple parameters including energy consumption of the computer and peripherals (e.g., speakers, printers, or desk lamps) to determine when the user is not actively using the computer. When no activity is detected, a timer is started. If no activity is detected before the timer reaches zero, the user may be warned that computer is about to go into standby mode. If no response is detected, the software puts the computer into standby mode, and the APS de-energizes the controlled sockets, shutting down peripherals.

Note: Tier 1 power strips only monitor a device in one of the sockets (master) and turn off other peripheral devices plugged into the other sockets (controlled) accordingly. If the device that is plugged into the master socket is turned off, the power strip removes power to the devices plugged into the controlled sockets. Tier 1 power strips only use current sensing. Utilities will not be able to claim savings from Tier 1 Advanced Power Strips.

Why use Advanced Power Strips? Advanced Power Strips help manage an energy waste called "Vampire Energy" or "Phantom Loads." A phantom load is any device that uses electricity when turned off but still plugged in. This is when energy is being used but not being useful. This is when energy is being used and you may not even know or realize it is being used. This is when energy is wasted.

U.S. Department of Energy's Article: Choose the Right Advanced Power Strip for You
Short summary article about what they are and where to use them.
Click here to go to resource >>

Infographic to guide someone through selecting the right type of Advanced Power Strip
Contains a decision-tree to suggest which of 5 Advanced Power Strips are good for the using with home entertainment systems and home computers. Your fundraiser will likely include only one kind of power strip. You can point out which type of strip it is on this infographic so that your customers understand its best use and raise awareness about other types of power strips to meet their other needs.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Department of Energy's Article on Energy Vampires
Four simple strategies to slay energy vampires.
Click here to go to resource >>

Vampire Energy Video
A 3-minute video with examples of energy vampires and how using Advanced Power Strips (smart power strips) and buying Energy Star equipment is a solution to these pesky vampires.
Click here to go to resource >>

Take Control and Save - Phantom Loads Handout
A 2-page informational handout about vampire energy, also called phantom loads.
Click here to go to resource >>

Take Control and Save - Phantom Load Calculator
A website with an interactive calculator for users to add up all the money and energy wasted in their home.
Click here to go to resource >>

Energy Vampire Hunt
An activity with a worksheet to identify and tally-up all the vampires in a home.
Click here to go to resource >>

Using a Watt Meter to Measure Phantom Loads
For groups that can obtain a watt meter (check with your local library), an educational activity for your group or for demonstrations at events might be to measure the energy wasted by electronics plugged-in but off or not in use by using a watt meter.
Click here to go to resource >>

Home Remedy: At-Home Guide and Conservation Manual for Energy and Water Savings
Here's another good resource for educating about and beyond smart powerstrips. A Southwest CERTs Seed Grant recipient created the Conservation Manual which helps you instruct others on energy and water saving activities. The at-home guide can be given to participants.
Click here to go to manual >>
Click here to go to at-home guide >>

What are low flow showerheads? A typical showerhead uses 2.5 to 5 gallons every minute the shower is running. Low flow showerheads use much less at only 1.5 gallons or less every minute. These values are the "flow rate" of the water the showerhead provides and their units are in gallons per minute or GPM for short.

Why use low flow showerheads? Whenever we are using hot water, it is not just water going down the drain - energy is being used too. By switching to low flow showerheads, there is an opportunity save up to 40% on water and energy costs.

Help your customers know if they need the efficient showerheads offered in your fundraiser
Look for flow rate printed or inscribed on the showerhead somewhere; it will have a number and then the units GPM standing for "gallons per minute" following the number.
If you can't find a flow rate shown on the showerhead, then perform this easy test: Find a one-gallon container (a gallon ice cream tub works just fine). If the one-gallon container can be filled in 30 seconds or less, then the showerhead should be replaced.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Showerhead Worksheet
A worksheet that introduces the water and energy connection when showering with a calculation exercise on taking shorter showers and a word find activity.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Showerhead Brochure
A tri-fold brochure that explains the water and energy connection when showering and an infographic about the water, energy, and money wasted each year on showers.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Showerhead Factsheet
A factsheet to raise awareness about water wasted from showers and how to look for the WaterSense label to know you're getting an efficient showerhead.
Click here to go to resource >>

Alliance for Water Efficiency's Water Calculator
An interactive, graphical questionnaire that offers water conservation tips and calculates in-depth water and energy use.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pie Chart of Home Water Use
A pie chart shows that showers make up 20% of a home's typical indoor water use.
Click here to go to resource >>

Home Remedy: At-Home Guide and Conservation Manual for Energy and Water Savings
Here's another good resource for educating about and beyond low flow showerheads. A Southwest CERTs Seed Grant recipient created the Conservation Manual which helps you instruct others on energy and water saving activities. The at-home guide can be given to participants.
Click here to go to manual >>
Click here to go to at-home guide >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidance on Understanding a Water Bill
Explanations of what all the parts of a typical water bill mean.
Click here to go to resource >>

What are low flow faucet aerators? A typical sink faucet uses 2.2 to 7 gallons every minute the faucet is running. Faucet aerators screw onto faucets to control the flow of the water coming out. Low flow faucet aerators bring sink faucets' water use down to 1.5 gallons or less every minute. These values are the "flow rate" of the water the faucet provides and their units are in gallons per minute or GPM for short.

Why use low flow faucet aerators? Whenever we are using hot water, it is not just water going down the drain - energy is being used too. By switching to low flow faucet aerators, there is an opportunity save over 50% on water and energy costs.

Note: Faucet aerators are on bathroom and kitchen sinks. In a bathroom, flow rates of 0.5 and 1 GPM are acceptable. In a kitchen, the absolute lowest flow rate that is usually acceptable is 1.5 GPM. (Think about how long it might take to fill the sink for washing dishes or a big soup pot.) So, be sure you know the flow rates of the faucet aerators in your fundraiser so that you can clearly tell customers where they belong in the home.

Help your customers know if they need the efficient faucet aerators offered in your fundraiser
Look for flow rate inscribed on the outer side of faucet aerator located where the water comes out; it will have a number and then the units GPM standing for "gallons per minute" following the number. Sometimes, it is printed so small that a magnifying glass may be needed. If you can't find a flow rate on the faucet aerator, then perform this easy test: Find a one-gallon container (a gallon ice cream tub works just fine). If the one-gallon container can be filled in less than 1 minute, then the faucet aerator should be replaced.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Faucet Aerator Factsheet
A factsheet to raise awareness about water wasted from faucets and how to look for the WaterSense label to know you're getting an efficient faucet aerator.
Click here to go to resource >>

Alliance for Water Efficiency's Water Calculator
An interactive, graphical questionnaire that offers water conservation tips and calculates in-depth water and energy use.
Click here to go to resource >>

Faucet Aerator Sizing Guide
A guide that describes technical details about faucet aerators. This guide may help customers understand what size faucet aerator they have (and how it is threaded) to know if what's included in the fundraiser will be a replacement that works for them.
Click here to go to resource >>

CERTs' Most Popular Blog (no joke) on Faucet Aerators
An article about selecting a faucet aerator based on the task, maintaining aerators for full performance, and ensuring hot water consistently arrives at the sink.
Click here to go to resource >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pie Chart of Home Water Use
A pie chart shows that showers make up 20% of a home's typical indoor water use.
Click here to go to resource >>

Home Remedy: At-Home Guide and Conservation Manual for Energy and Water Savings
Here's another good resource for educating about and beyond low flow faucet aerators. A Southwest CERTs Seed Grant recipient created the Conservation Manual which helps you instruct others on energy and water saving activities. The at-home guide can be given to participants.
Click here to go to manual >>
Click here to go to at-home guide >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidance on Understanding a Water Bill
Explanations of what all the parts of a typical water bill mean.
Click here to go to resource >>

What are pre-rinse spray valves? If you've ever worked at the dishwashing station in a restaurant or other commercial kitchen, then you are probably very familiar with a pre-rinse spray valve. They ware also call dish sprayers. It looks like the picture at the right and is attached to a hose that hangs from above over a large sink, typically adjacent to a dishwashing machine. It is used, just as the name suggests, to pre-rinse dishes before going into a dishwashing machine.

A pre-rinse spray valve uses 3 to 4.5 gallons every minute the sprayer is in use. Efficient pre-rinse spray valves bring the water use down to 1.6 gallons or less every minute. These values are the "flow rate" of the water the sprayer provides and their units are in gallons per minute or GPM for short.

Why use efficient pre-rinse spray valves? Whenever we are using hot water, it is not just water going down the drain - energy is being used too. By switching to efficient pre-rinse spray valves, there is an opportunity to use 60% less water and save $410 a year on water and energy costs. These sprayers pay for themselves with energy and water savings (called payback) in just 1-2 months in a typical commercial kitchen.

CERTs' Video on Flow Testing Pre-Rinse Spray Valves: Help your customers know if they need the efficient pre-rinse spray valve offered in your fundraiser
Look for flow rate printed or inscribed on the sprayer somewhere; it will have a number and then the units GPM standing for "gallons per minute" following the number. If you can't find a flow rate on the faucet aerator, then perform this easy test: Find a one-gallon container (a gallon ice cream tub works just fine). If the one-gallon container can be filled in 30 seconds or less, then the sprayer should be replaced.
Click here to watch video >>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Pre-Rinse Spray Valve Factsheet
A factsheet to raise awareness about water wasted from dish sprayers and how to look for the WaterSense label to know you're getting an efficient pre-rinse spray valve.
Click here to go to resource >>

CERTs' Video on Installing Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
A 3-minute instructional video on how to install an efficient pre-rinse spray valve.
Click here to watch video >>

Food Service Technology Center's Water Cost Calculator
An easy calculation form to figure the water and cost savings when replacing a current dish sprayer with an efficient pre-rinse spray valve.
Click here to go to resource >>

CERTs' Past Campaign on Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
Look around a past program CERTs hosted for ideas about how to explain the energy, water and cost savings of switching to efficient pre-rinse spray valves.
Click here to go to resource >>

Distribution Methods

 

Here are some ideas, starting with the easiest:

  1. Giveaway at community events
  2. Giveaway at city hall near a bill pay counter if quite a few people still pay at the counter
  3. Coordinate with chamber of commerce when target audience is commercial
  4. Coordinate with local community groups or youth groups like Youth Eco Solutions! and 4-H clubs to distribute for free or to conduct a fundraiser for that group with the items
  5. Coordinate with apartment managers
 

The Money Flow

 

CERTs does not have funding to support the purchase of items. Decide whether you need to recoup any cost from community members that receive the items.

  1. Cities or other community-level organizations may find funds within their existing budgets or seek funds from a local philanthropist or organizations like Lions, Kiwanis, and Rotary clubs. 
  2. Utilities could account for the cost of this effort with their Conservation Improvement Program (CIP) spending. Utilities may choose to recoup costs to make the CIP cost effective. View the FAQs on the Who tab for additional cost considerations and information on Technical Reference Manual's calculations for energy savings for all of these items, which may help in your evaluation of cost effectiveness. 
  3. As a last resort, coordinating a fundraiser with these items may be a way to recoup a portion of the items' cost.